Clean survey (urban) 2019; The problem of defecation in the open
From January 4 to January 28, the 25- day Clean Survey 2019 begins. Under this survey being conducted by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, 4237 cities will come to the country . This is the fourth edition of the annual hygiene survey of digital and paperless ‘Urban India’. On one hand, the government is making big claims about cleanliness, while a recent study conducted on Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural) shows that in the four states of North India the number of defecations between 2014 to 2018 There is no specific reduction in the situation.
What are the findings of the study?
This new study is done jointly by Research Institute for Compassionate Economics and Accountability Initiative of the Center for Policy Research.
This new study on the effect of Clean India Mission in the rural areas of four northern states shows that there has been a decline in the open defecation and the number of toilets in the houses has also increased.
But the percentage of defecation in the open by the people of the toilets has remained almost the same as between 2014 and 2018.
It also shows that instead of changing the habit of defecating in the open, clean India Mission has been more successful in the mission of building toilets.
In rural areas of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, about 44 percent of the people above two years of age still do open defecation.
This statistic is based on a survey conducted in the last months of 2018, covering 9812 people of these states.
During this study the researchers surveyed the same areas and families who participated in similar surveys in June 2014, which found out that 70 per cent of people used to open in the open.
Significantly, the 2014 survey was done before the beginning of the Clean India Mission of the Central Government, with the objective of eliminating open defecation across the country till October 2, 2019.
According to the statistics of Swachh Bharat Mission, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are already open defecation or ODF state.
Bihar has received 98.97 per cent coverage of the toilet project in every house.
In the statistics Uttar Pradesh has acquired 100% coverage, but it has not yet been declared ODF.
Studies show that Clean India Mission has inspired people to make toilets, but its conclusions are lesser than government claims.
Approximately 60% of the households covered in the survey did not have toilets in 2014, but the toilets were constructed by 2018 in these houses.
There is a particular figure in which there was no change from 2014 to 2018. The percentage of those who have toilets but still open in the open, their percentage has remained between 23 to 2018 between 2014 and 2018.
The study also showed that the change in the state of open defecation from 2014 to 2018 has only been going on increasing the number of toilets in homes only.
There was no change in people’s habits, that is, there was no change in their habitat whose homes had toilets and whose homes were not there.
One thing that has been seen is that under the Swachh Bharat Mission, the interest of government officials was limited to building toilets only, while they should have motivated people to use toilets.
A national helpline number 1969 has been started to bring about habitual change in people’s mind , in which the questions of the people asked in connection with Swachh Bharat Mission are answered.
ODF + and ODF ++ protocols
Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has now released the ODIF + and ODF ++ protocol after its ambitious plan to stop the tendency of people to open.
This is the next step for Clean India Mission (Urban) and its goal is to ensure sustainability in cleanliness results.
Under the new norms, people, who want to be declared ODF + (open defecation in the open), should be open from open defecation in the open, besides being free from defecation in the cities and towns.
In the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) officially, people have been included in the open for the first time in their agenda for the end of urination.
This mission is focused on infrastructure and regulatory changes, and is based on the assumption that this will change the behavior of the people.
The ODF + protocol focuses on the operation and maintenance of the community and public toilets, ensuring their functionalities and proper maintenance for regular use. ODF ++ focuses on the safe disposal of the feces and mud from the toilets and ensuring that no such crushed mud can be drained in open drains, water bodies or open.
There is no change in habit due to open defecation problem
By the year 2019, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has played a major role in the Clean India Mission in the rural areas in achieving the goal of making the country clean.
For this it is necessary to be free from defecation and solid and liquid waste management in the open.
In open open defecation is directly related to diarrhea from death, disease , illiteracy , malnutrition and poverty , so attention has been given to eliminate this problem mainly through this program.
Since the beginning of Swachh Bharat Mission, lakhs of toilets have been constructed so far, whereas the focus of this mission is not to build a toilet, but to focus on community involvement by bringing change in the thinking and habits of the people.
States are free to choose their method according to their socio-economic and cultural environment.
Only when the entire village is free from defecation, health problems can be overcome. In addition to enhancing the coverage by recognizing this, the focus has been on fostering the villages in open open defecation.
Skills and skill development required to change centuries old habits and mindset have been given prominently attention.
States have adopted community workshops for capacity development and changes in habits in many states have also been observed.
It is important that in order to improve the cleanliness standards, clean survey survey, which gave ratings to 73 cities in 2016 , was conducted to develop a healthy competition among the cities. After this, clean survey – 2017 happened, in which 434 cities were ranked. Indore has secured first place in the survey of 2017 . After this, its third phase was organized from January 4 to March 10 , 2018 covering 4,203 statutory towns of India . Meanwhile , Indore , Bhopal and Chandigarh emerged as the 3 most clean cities of the country . 4 Now from 4 January to 28 January 25Day Clean Survey 2019 has started, which is its fourth phase. In the scope of this survey conducted by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, there will be 4237 cities and towns in the country .