Coastal Regulation Zone-CRZ
Some time ago, the Government of India has approved the Coastal Regulation Zone-CRZ Notification, 2018. This will increase activities in the coastal areas, which will result in the growth of economic growth. This will not only create large numbers of jobs, but also ensure a better life as well as Value Addition in the country’s economy. This notification will reduce the hypersensitivity of coastal areas as well as improve their condition. Simultaneously, the principles of conservation of coastal areas have also been kept in mind in this notification.
Coastal economic zone in blue economy
Blue Economy i.e. blue economy is an important component of India’s economic development program and more than 95 percent of India’s business is through sea.
Through the framework of ‘Indian Ocean Rim Association’, India is in favor of encouraging the blue economy in an affordable, inclusive and mass-based manner.
India’s national approach (Security and Growth for All in the Region- SAGAR ) is a symbol of this belief that means ‘security and development for everyone in the region’.
Coastal Economic Area in Sagaramala Project
With the ongoing Sagarmala program in the country, the movement of goods through the sea and the development of the port are fast emerging.
Under this program, more than 600 projects have been identified, out of which the target of an investment of about Rs.8 lakh crore has been set by 2020.
Under the Sagarma National Project, 14 coastal economic zones have been identified.
These areas will be connected to the respective ports in the States engaged in the sea and they will have coastal economic units to set up manufacturing facilities.
The coastal economic areas have been envisaged in the form of local economic zones, which can be expanded from 300 to 500 km coastline and coastline 200 to 300 km inland areas.
Each coastal economic zone will be a cluster of coastal districts within the state.
Under the Sagarmala program, investment of 150 million dollars in each site is proposed to develop coastal economic zones.
This will save 6 billion dollars annually in logistic costs in the country and create 10 million new employment opportunities.
The capacity of the ports will increase from 800 million metric tons annually to 3500 million metric tons.
Sagaramala National Perspective Plan
This National Perspective Plan was introduced in April 2016. Sagarmala is a major program of the government, which aims at speeding up the pace of development through ports in the country. This national perspective plan has been prepared after extensive consultation with key stakeholders of Central and State Governments and public and private companies of shipping, ports, shipbuilding, electricity, cement and steel sectors. This is an important step towards realizing the vision of Sagarmala, with minimal investment, to reduce the cost of export-import and domestic trade to a great extent.
This plan is based on these four strategic aspects:
Optimize the multi-modal transport to reduce the cost of domestic cargo
Minimizing the time and cost of export-import cargo logistics
Decrease the cost by establishing bulk industries closer to cost
Improving competitiveness in terms of export by establishing separate manufacturing clusters near ports
Why is the importance of the coastal areas and their regulation?
Keeping in view the objective of conservation and protection of coastal areas, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change had issued CRZ notification in 1991 , which was amended in 2011, keeping in mind the memorandums and suggestions received from time to time.
Shailesh Nayak Committee formation and recommendations
There was a need to make extensive amendments in the 2011 notification for comprehensive review of the provisions related to management and conservation of marine and coastal ecosystem, development of coastal areas, ecological tourism, livelihood related options of coastal communities and sustainable development etc. Keeping this in mind, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change had constituted a committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Shailesh Nayak in June 2014, to recommend suitable changes in CRZ Notification, 2011, to the coastal states / UTs and other stakeholders. As well as concerns, various responsibilities were taken to look at the issues.
The committee gave its recommendations in 2015 after extensive consultation with state governments and other stakeholders.
These recommendations were reviewed again by consultation with the concerned ministries of the Government of India, along with the MPs of the coastal states and union territories.
After this, their suggestions were invited to the general public by issuing a draft notification in April, 2018.
On the basis of which the government has approved the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2018, on the basis of the overall inevitability of sustainable development of the coastal areas and the need to conserve coastal environment.
This can be helpful in fulfilling the aspirations of coastal communities and ensuring the welfare of poor and weaker sections of society.
Major Changes in CRZ Notification
Changes in CRZ notification will also help in creating additional opportunities for affordable housing. This will not only benefit the people but also the people looking for shelter, will also be benefitted. This notification has been prepared in some special way. There is a proper balance in some of the requirements related to this, so that both of them are fulfilled. Tourism is also considered among the biggest creators of livelihood and employment. The new notification will encourage tourism in terms of more activities, more basic infrastructure and more opportunities. At the same time, it will definitely prove to be very helpful in creating employment opportunities in various aspects of tourism.
Key Features of CRZ Notification, 2018
Floor Area Ratio: In the notification of 2011, the floor area ratio for CRZ-II (urban) areas was kept as per the levels of development control regulation of 1991. But in CRZ, 2018 it was decided to allow these levels not to remain unchanged and for construction projects to decide that floor area ratio would be valid or current on the date of new notification. It will be possible to redevelop these areas in order to meet the requirements that are coming in the near future.
Development of densely populated areas: Two different categories have now been created for CRZ-III (rural) areas: 1. CRZ-III A- According to 2011 census, with population density of 2161 per square kilometer, densely populated There are rural areas. 2. CRZ-III B- According to the 2011 census, rural areas with population density of less than 2161 per square kilometer are included.
Development of infrastructure related to tourism: On the beaches, temporary facilities such as hut or small rooms, toilet blocks, change rooms, as well as drinking water etc. are attached to tourism.
Process of CRZ approval was streamlined: The process related to CRZ sanctions has been simplified. Only the CRZ-I (areas considered ecologically sensitive) and CRZ-IV (located in the area between 12 knots towards the lower tide line and sea), the environment for obtaining CRZ approval for such projects related activities, The Ministry of Forest and Climate Change has to be contacted. With regard to CRZ-II and CRZ-III, right of approval is given at the state level with the necessary guidance.
NDZ of 20 meters (no development zone) for all islands: No development zone (No Development Zone-NDZ) specified for all ‘Bakewater islands’ located on the islands located near mainland coast and on mainland has gone. It has been done keeping in view the limited geographical location of such areas as well as keeping available space available. Another objective of this is to bring uniformity in the case of such areas.
Ecological Sensitive: Specific notifications related to their protection and management plans have been prepared as part of the notification for all such areas in the notification.
Focus on the reduction in pollution : Refining facilities in the CRZ-1B area are considered acceptable activities to deal with the problem of pollution in coastal areas. However, in this regard, some necessary security arrangements should be kept in mind.
Apart from these, the defense and strategic projects have been given the necessary exemption.
CRZ Notification, before 2018, was reviewed in 2011 and then it was released the same year. Thereafter, amendments were also made in some of its paragraphs from time to time. 2011, along with various coastal states / Union Territories for comprehensive review of the provisions related to management and conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems, development of coastal areas, ecological tourism, livelihood related options of coastal communities and sustainable development etc., Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change also received from other stakeholders Considering many memorandums, CRZ Notification, 2018 has been issued. Apart from this, there is considerable potential for reducing operational costs under the Sagarmala project and coastal economic zones are an effort to reduce cost by establishing manufacturing area near the port.